Tywin Lannister decides to invest in the import/export business. He wants to import certain goods from the United Kingdom and resell them in the United States. He estimates that he will need 7.5 million British pounds (GBP) to purchase, package, process, and deliver his British goods to the U.S.
At an exchange rate of $1.3740 per British pound, he estimates borrowing $10.305 million from his US bank. The borrowed amount also includes his estimated profit.
To sweeten the deal with the prime brokerage division of his bank, he offers up $1.05 million dollars in cash and securities as collateral.
Lannister’s business venture so far in Great Britain is a success. His take comes in (for the purpose of this discussion) at the estimated 7.5 million GBP which also includes his profit. He would not mind expanding his profit so he hopes that the dollar weakens or depreciates. Fortunately for Lannister the dollar price of a pound has increased to $1.5801. After converting his pounds to dollars, he realizes $11.85 million, and after repaying his loan, he takes home approximately $1.54 million in profit from his venture.
Lannister likely benefited from a number of market forces. For example, incomes in the US may have been increasing faster than those in the UK thus increasing demand for the UK’s exports and currency. The UK’s currency appreciates versus the US.
Prices in the US may have been rising rapidly when compared to prices in the UK. The resulting demand for lower priced UK products would have resulted in an appreciation of the UK’s products and currency.
In addition, interest rates in the UK may have risen higher than in the US, incentivizing the movement of money from the US to the UK resulting in an appreciated UK currency.
A trader’s sound monetary policy strategy will emphasize interest rate moves, but will not discount to zero the other market forces that impact currency values. Lannister no doubt kept his eyes on all the factors, but given that a central bank is the “farmer” of its nation’s respective currency, Lannister, and any other importer, will pay close attention to the interest rate actions (monetary policy) of its central bank.
Alton Drew 23 September 2021