Interbank market news scan: BIS releases paper on virtual banking; forex rates of interest to Atlanta; Ethereum strengthens slightly

Bank of International Settlements. Today, the Bank of International Settlements released a paper on virtual banking providing insights on the use of information capital as a substitute for tangible capital. The paper argues that information capital, comprised of an enterprise’s or individual’s digital data footprint, can be used as collateral for obtaining credit, thus increasing access to credit by small and medium businesses and low income individuals.

While the paper uses the Hong Kong market as a case study, I believe that if US-based banks and fintechs embarked on the same initiative, the following legal issues may arise. Can information capital be used as collateral when borrowing for the purpose of purchasing foreign currencies? Does the use of information capital raise discrimination issues where biases are embeded in the artificial intelligence programming? Are existing laws sufficient for protecting enterprise or individual data privacy where such data is encompassed in information capital used as collateral?

The link to the BIS paper can be found here.

Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Yesterday after the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve announced that it would hold its interbank rate for overnight lending between 0 and .25%, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York announced that the reserve bank’s Open Market Trading Desk would increase its System Open Market Account holding of Treasury securities by at least $20 billion per month and its agency mortgage-backed securities by at least $10 billion per month. This reduced level of purchasing (down from a combined high of $120 billion per month at the beginning of the pandemic) will commence on 14 February 2022.

The link to the New York Fed’s announcement can be found here.

Interbank Market, Pakistan. The rupee held steady against the dollar at Rs176.98 but has been depreciating in value since 1 July 2021. See link to article here.

Foreign exchange rates as of 10:00 am EDT

EUR/USD=1.1282

GBP/USD=1.3500

USD/MXN=20.6258

USD/GTQ=7.5060

USD/NGN=414.7010

USD/GHS=6.1790

USD/VND=22,632.2000

USD/JPY=114.1900

USD/INR=74.8041

USD/BTC=0.00003

USD/ETH=0.00039

Source: OANDA

Foreign exchange rates of interest …

USD-DXY=96.30

The US dollar index strengthened today versus its 2 January 2022 reading. On 4 January 2022, the USD-DXY was at 96.30, up from a reading of 95.73 on 2 January 2022.

USD-MXN=20.5131

The Mexican peso continued its strengthening against the US dollar. On 4 January 2022, the USD-MXN registered at 20.5131, down from the 2 January 2022 level of 20.7538.

USD-INR=74.2541

And like the peso, the Indian rupee also showed some strength over the prior two-day period. The USD-INR printed at 74.2541, down from the 2 January 2022 level of 75.5300.

USD-VND=22,830.2

The Vietnamese dong appeared flat over the 2-day period coming in today at USD-VND=22,830.2 versus the 2 January 2022 exchange rate of 22,838.

USD-NGN=410.627

Finally, Nigeria does not want to be left out of the strengthening game. Today the USD-NGN came in at 410.627, down from 411.450 on 2 January 2022.

Source: OANDA

Alton Drew

4.01.2022

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Disclaimer: The above is provided for informational purposes and should not be construed as financial or legal advice or as creating an agreement to provide financial or legal advice.

Foreign exchange rates of interest to Atlanta. Rupee, peso, and dong see some strength.

USD-MXN=20.7538

The Mexican peso has been strengthening against the U.S. dollar since 25 November 2021where the USD-MXN currency pair exchange rate fell from approximately 21.5600 to 20.7538 as of 2 January 2022. Mexicans make up the largest group of foreign-born Georgians, according to the site DataUSA.

USD-INR=75.5300

The Indian rupee has been strengthening against the US dollar since 15 December 2021 where the USD-INR currency pair exchange rate fell from 76.3600 to 75.5300 as of 2 January 2022. Indians make up the second largest group of foreign-born Georgians.

USD-VND=22,838.0

The Vietnamese dong has been strengthening against the US dollar since 7 December 2021 where the USD-VND currency pair exchange rate fell from 23,066.7 to 22,838.0. Vietnamese make up the third largest group of foreign-born Georgians.

Alton Drew

2.01.2022

Call to action: To support this page, please visit our advertisers.

Disclaimer: The above is provided for informational purposes and should not be construed as financial or legal advice or as creating an agreement to provide financial or legal advice.

For US major trade partners, a mixed bag on their costs for the dollar …

The top twelve destinations for U.S. exports are Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, South Korea, Norway, Brazil, and Taiwan. There has been a mixed bag in terms of increases or decreases in each country’s cost of the US dollar since the beginning of 2021. Using currency data from OANDA, we identified the rate changes between 1 January 2021 and 18 March 2021.

Currency pair1 January 202118 March 2021Percentage change
USD/CAD1.27411.2450-2.3
USD/MXN19.883320.59713.6
USD/CNY6.52776.5006-0.4
USD/JPY103.1600109.07005.7
USD/GBP0.73250.7189-1.9
USD/EUR(1)0.81530.83882.9
USD/KRW1,086.10001,128.13003.9
USD/NOK8.54548.4699-0.9
USD/BRL5.19165.62088.2
USD/TWD28.077228.27240.7
Source: OANDA

(1) France, Germany, and Belgium use the euro as their currency. We refer to them collectively as the Eurozone.

Since January, countries seeing their currencies significantly strengthen against the dollar are Canada and Great Britain. On the other hand, Mexico, Japan, the Eurozone, South Korea, and Brazil have seen their currencies significantly weaken, making their cost to import U.S. product more expensive.

The primary mover of currency rates is supply and demand. The increased price of the dollar could be a result of this basic economic principal. Changes in bond yields may also have an impact on currency pricing as well as changes in policy rates imposed on banks due to their central banks’ policy initiatives.

During the same period in 2020, with the exception of Japan, all other top US trading partners saw their costs for US exports increase as shown in the following table:

Currency pair1 January 202018 March 2020Percentage change
USD/CAD1.30161.41008.3
USD/MXN18.906422.826620.7
USD/CNY6.96687.00480.4
USD/JPY108.6300106.9900-1.5
USD/GBP0.75830.82318.5
USD/EUR0.89150.90351.3
USD/KRW1,154.56001,240.10007.4
USD/NOK8.790610.357317.8
USD/BRL4.01635.006924.7
USD/TWD29.953130.21870.9
Source: OANDA

The shut downs around the globe due to the pandemic we believe may be the significant factor behind the changes in direction of these currency pairs.

18 March 2021 11:58 am EST

Are currency traders willing to pay more for the US dollar in face of US election? ….

Capital abhors a vacuum and even with the U.S. general election three days away, capital will try to cut through the campaign noise and seek out a return. From a political and legal event perspective, traders should assess the strength of legal challenges to voting, especially challenges raised by the Republican Party.

Republicans and Democrats have been building their legal teams for over a year and both will be on the lookout for voting irregularities including evidence of voter suppression or voter fraud. Republicans are expected to challenge authenticity of mail-in ballots and the deadlines for when these ballots are expected to be received. Traders should be particularly mindful of the intensity of Republican challenges given that incumbent president Donald J. Trump is running behind Democratic nominee Joseph R. Biden in national polls.

Real Clear Politics has Mr Biden polling at 51.3% versus Mr Trumps 43.5% during the period 21 October to 30 October 2020. PredictIt is pricing a .65 probability of a Democratic takeover of the White House versus a probability of .40 that the Republican Party maintains control of the Oval Office.

But the foreign exchange markets appear to see the value of the US dollar priced in various currencies increasing as we get closer to the election.

Country/Currency24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October
Mexico (MXN)20.921020.840820.847620.966720.927121.169421.310121.2962
Canada (CAD)1.313611.311911.312201.318291.317761.325551.332211.33172
Japan (Yen)104.72104.66104.67104.87104.61104.30104.44104.49
China (Yuan)6.677336.676806.676806.699166.705156.716726.711576.68746
Euro.84496.84274.84288.84578.84622.85056.85398.85694
Eastern Caribbean Dollar2.702.702.702.702.702.702.702.70
Brazil (BRL)5.601805.618405.618185.621155.644745.722425.758215.76506
Price of US Dollar in selected exchange rates 24 October to 31 October 2020

With the exception of Japan and the Eastern Caribbean, the prices in foreign currency offered for a US Dollar have been inching up over the last week. Traders in the above nations reflect a number of major US trading partners and the increase in the amount traders in these countries are willing to offer a seller of the US dollar tells me that at a minimum, they have positive expectation in the potential for growth in the US and that public policies offered by Mr Biden might not deter expected growth or value of the dollar.

Again, traders should be on the lookout for any legal, legislative, or regulatory actions that thwart the ability of Mr Biden to garner enough votes to win the Electoral College.

Additional source: OANDA.com

Foreign exchange rates between U.S. and countries with diplomatic presence in Atlanta, Georgia

As of 10:22 pm EST, 28 October 2020, here is the price of the U.S. Dollar in foreign currency of interest:

1 EUR= 1.17556 USD   1 USD= .85056 EUR

1 XCD (Eastern Caribbean) = 0.37037 USD  1 USD= 2.70 XCD

*1 CHD (Canada)= 0.75430 USD  1 USD= 1.32555 CHD

*1 CHF (Switzerland)= 1.09853 USD   1 USD= 0.91014 CHF

*1 ISL (Israel)= 0.29366 USD     1 USD = 3.38572 ISL

*1 ARS (Argentina)= 0.01277 USD    1 USD = 78.2977 ARS

*1 BSD (The Bahamas) = 1.00 USD   1 USD = 1 BSD

*1 ECS (Ecuador)= 0.00004 USD    1 USD = 24,094 ECS

*1 BRL (Brazil)= 0.17464 USD   1 USD = 5.72242 BRL

*1 KRW (South Korea) = 0.00088 USD   1 USD = 1132.29 KRW

*1 HTG (Haiti)= 0.01576 USD   1 USD = 61.7696 HTG

*1 LRD (Liberia) = 0.00536 USD   1 USD = 186.687 LRD

*1 MXN (Mexico) = 0.04722 USD     1 USD = 21.1694 MXN

*1 JPY (Japan) = 0.00959 USD   1 USD = 104.30 JPY

*1 JMD (Jamaica) = 0.00678 USD   1 USD = 144.408  JMD

Source: Bankrate

Foreign exchange rates in countries of interest …

As of 9:48 pm EST, here is the price of the U.S. Dollar in foreign currency of interest:

1 EUR= $1.18550

1 AOA (Angola)= $0.00154

1 ZAR (South Africa)= $0.06165

1 NGN (Nigeria)= $0.00260

1 INR (India)= $0.01353

1 KES (Kenya)= $0.00913

1 CNY (China)= $0.14933

1 XCD (Eastern Caribbean)= $.37037

*1 CHD (Canada)= $0.76154

*1 CHF (Switzerland)= $1.10492

*1 ISL (Israel)= $0.29533

*1 ARS (Argentina)= $0.01280

*1 BSD (The Bahamas)= $1.00

*1 ECS (Ecuador)= $0.00004

*1 BRL (Brazil)= $0.17789

*1 KRW (South Korea)= $0.00089

*1 HTG (Haiti)= $0.01578

*1 LRD (Liberia) = $0.00512

*1 MXN (Mexico) = $0.04784

*1 JPY (Japan) =$0.00955

*1 JMD (Jamaica) =$0.00679

Source: Bankrate

*Has a consulate office located in Atlanta